Runoff Transport of Pyrethroids from a Residential Lawn in Central California
This article was written by Stone’s John P. Hanzas, together with colleagues Russell L. Jones of Bayer CropScience and Jeffery White of White Environmental. It was published in July 2010 in the Journal of Environmental Quality, vol 40 No. 2, p.587-597.
Download the PDF using the link above or access it online at ACSESS DL (Alliance of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Science Societies Digital Library)
An irrigation runoff study on a residential lawn was conducted in California, northeast of Sacramento, during the summer and fall of 2008 to investigate the contribution of turf uses of pyrethroids to residues in Californian urban creek sediments. This study examined how over irrigation (i.e., irrigation that produces runoff) in the summer season may transport recently applied pyrethroids. The study included liquid and granular applications of both bifenthrin [(2-methyl-3-phenyl-phenyl)methyl 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-prop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate] and β-cyfluthrin [Cyano(4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylate]. Generally, runoff did not occur at irrigation rates of 2.03 cm/h (0.8 in/h) but did occur when the irrigation rates were increased to about 3.81 cm/h (1.5 in/h), generating chemical losses in the first runoff event of up to 0.58 and 0.08% of applied for β-cyfluthrin and bifenthrin, respectively. Chemical runoff losses dropped significantly between over-irrigation events with the third over-irrigation event chemical runoff losses representing 0.026 and 0.015% of applied for β-cyfluthrin and bifenthrin, respectively. Runoff losses were generally less for liquid formulations than granular formulations but within a factor of three. Additionally, the study included a simulated winter rainstorm 8 wk after application. The low runoff losses from turf seen in this study suggest that other sources could be contributing to observed residues in urban streams. Other sources could include pyrethroids ending up on impervious surfaces, such as concrete driveways from off-target applications to turf, spills, and other poor handling practices, or pyrethroids applied directly to impervious surfaces for insect control.