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Feasibility Evaluation of Engineered Ecosystems to Remove Phosphorus in the St. Albans Bay Watershed

For many years, a top priority of lake managers and the agricultural sector in Vermont has been reducing phosphorus (P) runoff from farmland through the implementation of agricultural conservation practices. These practices, however, may not be sufficient to address the problem in Lake Champlain's eutrophic St. Albans bay. The Lake Champlain TMDL Phase 1 Implementation Plan states that high nutrient loading from agricultural runoff in a handful of subwatersheds, including St. Albans Bay, will require implementation of creative solutions and innovative restoration techniques--measures that extend and enhance ongoing agency programs--to achieve the goals of the Lake Champlain TMDL.